Eventually, broom-making followed national expansion to the western states, where broomcorn was considered to grow better. By the turn of the 20th century, the industry had significantly declined in the Northeast. Following the larger trends of industrialization in all trades, small broom shops in the United States gradually expanded into factories to meet demand, their manufacturing techniques continuing to require skilled, hands-on labor, until 1994, when NAFTA made Mexican brooms cheaper and forced many American outfits to close. Currently, most of the United States’ natural fiber brooms come from south of the border, with only a few local makers remaining.

In the context of witchcraft, broomstick is likely to refer to the broom as a whole, known as a besom. The first known reference to witches flying on broomsticks dates to 1453, confessed by the male witch Guillaume Edelin.[7] The concept of a flying ointment used by witches appears at about the same time, recorded in 1456.

—Constituents—Broom contains two principles on which its activity depends. Sparteine, discovered in 1851 by Stenhouse, of which about 0.03 per cent is present, is a transparent, oily liquid, colourless when fresh, turning brown on exposure, of an aniline-like odour and a very bitter taste. It is but slightly soluble in water, but readily soluble in alcohol and ether. Stenhouse stated that the amount of Sparteine in Broom depends much upon external conditions, that grown in the shade yielding less than that produced in sunny places.

Mix warm water and your floor cleaner (follow directions on the bottle to see how much water, if any, you should mix the cleaner with–it varies) in a clean bucket. It doesn’t matter if the bucket is a mop bucket or a generic bucket, as long as it is wide enough for you to submerse the mop head.

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French broom: In Australia, seeds germinate in spring and fall. Fire appears to stimulate seed germination. Where seeds are present in the soil, a large flush of seedlings may emerge on newly burned sites. Development is similar to that of Scotch broom. Pods are often copiously produced.

—Medicinal Action and Uses—Diuretic and cathartic. Broom tops are used in the form of decoction and infusion, often with squill and ammonium and potassium acetate, as a feeble diuretic, generally in dropsical complaints of cardiac origin. The action is due to the Scoparin contained, whose action on the renal mucous membrane is similar to that of Buchu and Uva-Ursi.

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I thought the design of the mop was great when I was looking at this mop in the store. I don’t want to get my hands in the mop water so this looked good. I’ve had the mop two weeks and used it three times to mop a 6 x 10 section of vinyl. First mopping: immediately found that too much water is left in the sponge and there’s no way to get more out of it First mopping: found that once squeezed, the mop head doesn’t return to a flat position on it’s own First mopping: found that the scrub brush is not positioned correctly. If you want to use it on the floor you’d need to bend over and hold the mop handle very low to the floor Second mopping, handle bent at the weak spot where the wringer handle is Third mopping (trying to get more life out of this pathetic product) mop head comes off while I was trying to rinse it in the mop bucket. Gross…had to reach in and retrieve it. I’m looking for my receipt so I can return it. I rarely write reviews, or return products, but this mop is a joke.

POSTSENESCENCE CHARACTERISTICS: Plants tolerate frost, but typically die-back after severe cold winter conditions. Some branch death can occur during seasonal drought. Natural decline and senescence occurs over a period of years. Symptoms of decline in Scotch broom include an increase in the ratio of woody to green plant material, a thinning of stems, and a decrease in pod production. Eventually old plants die and topple over, opening the canopy for seedling establishment.

The plant has been touted as a potential drug of abuse or “legal high.” In describing the preparation of the drug, some counter-culture magazines suggest that the flowers be collected and aged for about 10 days in a closed jar. 2 The moldy, dried blossoms are then pulverized, rolled in cigarette paper and smoked like marijuana.

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Sparteine is an oily liquid that vaporizes readily when heated. Therefore, persons who smoke broom cigarettes may inhale significant amounts of the alkaloid. One such cigarette is said to produce a feeling of relaxation and euphoria lasting about 2 hours. However, some studies indicate that doses in excess of that which one would obtain by smoking the leaves would be needed to induce euphoria; the same studies concluded that “apparently this plant is not very toxic and the use of it as a ‘legal high’ probably would not precipitate a severe toxic episode.” 8

Scotch broom: North Coast, North Coast Ranges, Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range foothills, north and central Sierra Nevada foothills, Central Valley, San Francisco Bay region, South Coast; to Canada, Montana. Also Eastern U.S. To 1200 m (3950 ft).

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This mop has broken on me twice. There were problems with the springs. I will not buy another one. The first time – I thought perhaps it was user error. This time it was stuck again and I was unable to squeeze the water out. Now I am convinced it is a faulty design. Hope the concept is not oh the Customer will buy another one. Not going to happen.

The plant alkaloids are mainly found in the stem, but are also in the epidermis and sub-epidermis. Also present are flavonoids (spiraeoside, isoquercitin, genitoside, scoparoside) as well as other kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. Isoflavones such as sarothamnoside have also been reported. Broom also contains caffeic-acid derivatives and small amounts of essential oil. The seeds contain phytohaemagglutinins or lectins. 1 Fresh flower essential oils contain cis-3-hexan-l-ol, l-octen-3-ol, benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol and various phenols and acids. 9

‘Genesta hath that name of bytterness for it is full of bytter to mannes taste. And is a shrub that growyth in a place that is forsaken, stony and untylthed. Presence thereof is witnesse that the ground is bareyne and drye that it groweth in. And hath many braunches knotty and hard. Grene in winter and yelowe floures in somer thyche (the which) wrapped with hevy (heavy) smell and bitter sauer (savour). And ben, netheles, moost of vertue.’

Prescribed fire: Brooms and gorse are highly flammable. Fire has been used to eliminate large impenetrable thickets and prepare areas for easier follow up Fire stimulates seed germination and large flushes of seedlings may be expected following burning. Fire appears more effective in controlling resprouts when there is adequate grasses to carry the fire.

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By about 1810, the sorghum used in brooms, had acquired a new name, Broom Corn, as the British called all seed bearing plants, corn. The sorghum also looks similar to the sweet corn plant, and its tassel had become the broom material still used in quality brooms today.

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Could you imagine the frustration of having a kitchen full of young, playing children, while trying to cook a meal in the fireplace? Dust is flying as they run around the table, playing tag. It is nearly time for your husband and the field hands to come in, hungry after a long day of plowing, planting or harvesting, and dinner is not ready. If you could get the youngsters out of the kitchen, maybe all would be ready on time, but they do not heed the oft repeated words, Please go outside and play. Time for stronger measures–take that old, poorly made broom, and give them a swat with a stern warning to GO OUTSIDE! Swish goes the broom and the straw portion of the broom sails across the room. And so the phrase for anger, Flying Off The Handle.

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Mechanical: The weed wrench is one of the most effective techniques for the complete removal of French broom Scotch broom, and other brooms. The wrench locks on to the base of the stem and leverage is used to remove the entire plant. The wrench was specifically designed for complete broom removal to prevent any resprouting. The weed wrench is effective on many trees and shrubs up to a 2.5 inches in diameter. Some soil disturbance will occur with removal, which may favor new seedlings or deeply bury seeds in the soil. However, the disturbance is minimal and the technique can be employed even on steep slopes. Generally, a flush of broom seedlings may occur directly beneath the previously canopied area, which will need to be controlled. Mowing or cutting the shrubs may prevent seed production. However, resprouts will need to be managed.

^ Jump up to: a b Cardoso, D.; Pennington, RT; de Queiroz, LP; Boatwright, JS; Van Wyk, B-E; Wojciechowski, MF; Lavin, M. (2013). Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. S Afr J Bot. 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001.

Kathy Adams is an award-winning journalist and freelance writer who traveled the world handling numerous duties for music artists. She writes travel and budgeting tips and destination guides for USA Today, Travelocity and ForRent, among others. She enjoys exploring foreign locales and hiking off the beaten path stateside, snapping pics of wildlife and nature instead of selfies.